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2008| May-August | Volume 12 | Issue 2
November 15, 2008
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Future impact of nanotechnology on medicine and dentistry
Mallanagouda Patil, Dhoom Singh Mehta, Sowjanya Guvva
May-August 2008, 12(2):34-40
The human characteristics of curiosity, wonder, and ingenuity are as old as mankind. People around the world have been harnessing their curiosity into inquiry and the process of scientific methodology. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented growth in research in the area of nanoscience. There is increasing optimism that nanotechnology applied to medicine and dentistry will bring significant advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new field called nanomedicine. Nanomedicine needs to overcome the challenges for its application, to improve the understanding of pathophysiologic basis of disease, bring more sophisticated diagnostic opportunities, and yield more effective therapies and preventive properties. When doctors gain access to medical robots, they will be able to quickly cure most known diseases that hobble and kill people today, to rapidly repair most physical injuries our bodies can suffer, and to vastly extend the human health span. Molecular technology is destined to become the core technology underlying all of 21
century medicine and dentistry. In this article, we have made an attempt to have an early glimpse on future impact of nanotechnology in medicine and dentistry.
Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I
Vivek K Bains, Ranjana Mohan, Rhythm Bains
May-August 2008, 12(2):29-33
Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level.
Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application.
Double laterally rotated bilayer flap operation for treatment of gingival recession: A report of two cases
Vijayaraghavan Anita, Rajaram Vijayalakshmi, J Bhavna, Thyagarajan Ramakrishnan, Aravindkumar , Vikram Bali
May-August 2008, 12(2):51-54
Esthetic concerns of the patient have become an essential part of dentistry, especially Periodontics. Periodontal plastic surgery is a rapidly emerging field, which helps us to meet this criterion. Root coverage is being achieved by a variety of techniques namely pedicle grafts and free soft tissue grafts. This article highlights on 2 case reports in which a new pedicle graft technique has been used for root coverage.
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Comparison of neutrophil functions in diabetic and healthy subjects with chronic generalized periodontitis
Neetha Shetty, Biju Thomas, Amita Ramesh
May-August 2008, 12(2):41-44
: Diabetes mellitus is a systemic condition that has long been associated with an increased risk and severity of periodontal disease. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) play a key role in the maintenance of gingival and periodontal health. Reduced PMN function has been found in patients with diabetes.
The objective of this study was to evaluate PMN functions in 15 diabetic patients with chronic generalized periodontitis.
Materials and Methods:
Chemotaxis, superoxide production, phagocytosis and killing of
by diabetic PMNs were evaluated relative to healthy and matched controls.
These analyses revealed a significant (
< 0.01) depression in the number of diabetic PMNs migrating along an fMLP gradient. In addition, a significant (
< 0.01) enhancement of diabetic PMN superoxide production was observed. Phagocytosis (
< 0.05) and killing by diabetic PMN of
was also impaired significantly (
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Lymphocyte subpopulation in healthy and diseased gingival tissue
Aniz Amunulla, Remya Venkatesan, Hemalatha Ramakrishnan, KV Arun, Sabitha Sudarshan, Avaneendra Talwar
May-August 2008, 12(2):45-50
In this study, infiltrating lymphocytes subpopulation in gingival sections of healthy, inflamed, and periodontitis lesions was investigated. A set of cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen specific monoclonal/polyclonal antibodies to detect different cell types within the tissues was used. These included anti-CD3 (pan T-cell), anti-CD45RO (memory T-cell), anti-CD20 (B-cell), and kappa light chain (plasma cells). Biopsies of gingival tissue were obtained from 17 patients who had clinically healthy gingiva, from 18 patients with gingivitis, and 17 patients with periodontitis. A significantly greater proportion of T-cells (
< 0.00) was observed in healthy gingival and gingivitis tissue samples compared to periodontitis tissue samples. In addition, a greater proportion of B-cells was observed in periodontitis lesions than in the gingival lesions (
< 0.00). The memory T-cells and the kappa light-chain plasma cells were present in both healthy and diseased tissues, suggestive of previous activation by periodontal pathogenic microorganisms. In conclusion, these differences in the relative proportions of B- and T-cells may reflect a difference in the immunopathology of periodontitis and gingivitis lesions.
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