Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 731-736

Assessment of peripheral neutrophil functions in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis in the Indian population

1 Department of Dentistry, Dr. Ulhas Patil Medical College and Research Center, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Rungta College of Dental Sciences and Research, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Chief Research Officer, Maratha Mandal's Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Rahul S Bhansali
55, Navi Peth, Near Godavari Bank, Bank Street, Jalgaon - 425 001, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.124485

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Background: Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) patients exhibit abnormal neutrophil functions to a variety of environmental and host stimuli. The aim of the present study was to evaluate neutrophils chemotaxis, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity and superoxide generation in LAP patients of Indian origin. Materials and Methods: Eleven LAP patients and nine healthy subjects were included in the study. Neutrophil chemotaxis was evaluated against an alkali-soluble casein solution using Wilkinson's method. Phagocytosis and microbicidal activity assay were performed using Candida albicans as an indicator organism. Nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) test was used to assess superoxide generation by neutrophils using E. coli endotoxin. Results: The chemotactic activity and phagocytic and microbicidal activity were observed to be significantly reduced (P < 0.01) in LAP neutrophils. On the contrary, superoxide generation was observed to be significantly increased (P < 0.01) in LAP neutrophils compared with healthy individuals. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that neutrophil functions, namely chemotaxis, phagocytosis and microbicidal activity, are deficient LAP patients. However, superoxide generation was significantly increased when stimulated by endotoxins, which may explain the tissue damage seen in LAP. These abnormal neutrophil functions may predispose to increased susceptibility for LAP. Further large-scale studies are required in the Indian population to ascertain the cause-and-effect relationship of defective host factors and aggressive periodontitis and to develop treatment strategies for more predictable periodontal treatment outcome.

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