Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 324-329

Association of chronic periodontitis with metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Periodontology, Maharaj Ganga Singh Dental College and Research Centre, Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Periodontology, Dental Faculty, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Cardiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
4 Department of Periodontology, H.P. Government Dental College and Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
5 Department of Public Health Dentistry, H.P. Government Dental College and Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Naresh Kumar
Department of Periodontology, Maharaj Ganga Singh Dental College and Research Centre, Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.183096

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Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) is high among Asians, including Indians and is rising, particularly with the adoption of modernized lifestyle. Various studies have reported a significant relationship between periodontal status and MeS. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between periodontitis and MeS. Materials and Methods: The study included 259 subjects (130 cases with chronic periodontitis, 129 controls without chronic periodontitis) who underwent medical and periodontal checkup. Five components (obesity, high blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and high plasma glucose) of MeS were evaluated, and individuals with ≥3 positive components were defined as having MeS. The periodontal parameter was clinical attachment level (CAL) on the basis of which cases were selected with moderate (CAL loss 3–4 mm) and severe (CAL loss ≥5 mm) generalized chronic periodontitis. The association between chronic periodontitis and MeS components was investigated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The association of MeS and chronic periodontitis was strong and significant with OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.36–5.18, and P< 0.003. Comparison of mean values of components of MeS between cases and controls reveals that the mean waist circumference (mean difference: −4.8 [95% CI: 7.75–−1.84], P< 0.002) and mean triglycerides level (mean difference: −25.75 [95% CI: −49.22–−2.28], P< 0.032) were significantly higher in cases than in control groups. Although mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar level were higher in cases (125.77, 82.99 and 86.38, respectively) compared with control (122.81, 81.3 and 83.68, respectively), it was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that there is a strong association between chronic periodontitis and MeS. The association was independent of the various potential confounding risk factors affecting the chronic periodontitis such as age, sex, residential background, and tobacco consumption.


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