Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 309-314

Chronic periodontitis among diabetics and nondiabetics aged 35–65 years, in a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Dental Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Khushboo Yamima Nand
Department of Community Health, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 632002, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_217_17

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Background: Chronic periodontitis is a common cause of poor oral health globally. Those at higher risk of this preventable and easily treatable condition need to be identified so that efforts can be taken to decrease disease burden and subsequent consequences. Aims: The aims of the study were (1) To compare the prevalence of chronic periodontitis among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, aged 35–65 years from a rural block in Vellore, Tamil Nadu and (2) to assess risk factors for chronic periodontitis among individuals with diabetes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done in nine villages of Kaniyambadi block, Vellore, between October 2015 and July 2016 among participants aged 35–65 years of a previous cross-sectional survey which had identified individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Chronic periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index and Treatment Needs index. Oral hygiene was assessed clinically using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Diabetes was defined as on medication for type 2 diabetes or detected to have fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl (in a previous survey). Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and odds ratios (adjusted using logistic regression) were used to study risk factors for periodontitis among those with diabetes. Results: Prevalence of chronic periodontitis was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.88%–50.9%) among 98 individuals with diabetes and 35.6% (95% CI: 30.91–40.29%) among 104 individuals without diabetes. Poor oral hygiene (odds ratio: 8.33, 95% CI: 3.33–25.00), low socioeconomic status (odds ratio: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.00–10.12), and smoking (odds ratio: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.17–10.51) were associated with periodontitis among diabetics. Conclusions: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. As poor oral hygiene is a strong risk factor for periodontitis, there is a need for targeted education regarding dental hygiene to reduce this preventable condition.

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