Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 106-112

Estimation of Periostin and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α in Type II Diabetics with Chronic Periodontitis: A case–control study

1 Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Cure and Care Dental Clinic, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ponnudurai Samuel Gnana Prakash
Professor, Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_397_18

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Background: Periostin, a matricellular protein, is downregulated in chronic inflammatory periodontal disease and is negatively modulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in human periodontal fibroblast cell culture. The study aimed to estimate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of periostin and TNF-α and to discern their relationship in chronic periodontitis (CP) individuals with and without Type II diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 participants were divided into three groups, with 20 in each group. Group I – systemically and periodontally healthy, Group II – generalized CP, and Group III – generalized CP with Type II DM. Plaque index, gingival index, sulcular bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded. GCF periostin and TNF-α were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Intergroup comparison was performed using the one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the Pearson's and Kendall's Tau correlation. The GCF periostin levels in Groups I, II, and III was 27.52 ± 2.39 ng/mL, 20.18 ± 1.42 ng/mL, and 16.77 ± 3.29 ng/mL, respectively. The GCF TNF-α levels in Groups I, II, and III was 92.41 ± 19.30 ng/L, 118.53 ± 21.93 ng/L, and 147.67 ± 16.35 ng/L, respectively. Periostin decreased, and TNF-α increased in periodontal disease; moreover, periostin level correlated negatively with all the site-specific clinical parameters whereas TNF-α positively correlated (P < 0.001). Conclusions: TNF-α strongly and negatively downregulates periostin in a chronically inflamed locale leading to compromised integrity of the periodontium.

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