Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-101

Oral health of individuals with dementia and Alzheimer's disease: A review

1 Department of Oral Medicine, University Medical and Dental College, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Sharif Medical and Dental College Lahore, Pakistan
3 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Committee for Postgraduate Studies and Research College of Dentistry, King Faisal University Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari
Department of Dental Public Health, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, P.O Box 400 Al-Ahsa, 31982
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_287_20

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This paper explores the epidemiological evidence about oral health of individuals with neurodegenerative conditions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched to identify the relevant research papers published during January 2012 to June 2020. All cross-sectional, case–control, and cohort studies reporting oral and dental morbid conditions for status and association with AD and dementia were explored. The explored literature from 22 studies shows that oral health parameters of oral health and levels of oral inflammatory markers were deranged and exaggerated in patients suffering from AD and dementia. Many studies have observed poor oral hygiene as result of lack or irregularity in toothbrushing. Regarding decayed, missing, and filled teeth status in AD/dementia populations, no significant difference is reported. Periodontal diseases have been noted at raised levels in AD and dementia patients and shown progression with aggravation in neurological disorders. Both edentulousness and low chewing efficacies are associated with low cognition. Stomatitis and coated tongue and other oral pathologies are significantly higher in AD patients. AD patients have demonstrated higher bacterial load and inflammation levels than controls, and consequently, inflammatory biomarker levels are also raised. AD patients have reduced salivary secretions and with low buffering capacity. Evidence from the current literature update postulates that individuals suffering from AD and dementia have special oral health-care needs. Appropriate oral health management may thus significantly improve their oral health-related and general quality of life.

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