Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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   2011| October-December  | Volume 15 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 2, 2012

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Effect of local drug delivery in chronic periodontitis patients: A meta-analysis
Rupali Kalsi, KL Vandana, Shobha Prakash
October-December 2011, 15(4):304-309
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92559  PMID:22368351
Periodontal diseases are multi-factorial in etiology, and bacteria are one among these etiologic agents. Thus, an essential component of therapy is to eliminate or control these pathogens. This has been traditionally accomplished through mechanical means (scaling and root planing (SRP)), which is time-consuming, difficult, and, sometimes, ineffective. From about the past 30 years, locally delivered, anti-infective pharmacological agents, most recently employing sustained-release vehicles, have been introduced to achieve this goal. This systematic review is an effort to determine the efficacy of the currently available anti-infective agents, with and without concurrent SRP, in controlling chronic periodontitis. Four studies were included, which were all randomized controlled trials, incorporating a total patient population of 80, with 97 control sites and 111 test sites. A meta-analysis completed on these four studies including SRP and local sustained-release agents compared with SRP alone indicated significant adjunctive probing depth (PD) reduction for 10% Doxycycline hycylate (ATRIDOX), minocycline hydrochloride (ARESTIN), tetracycline hydrochloride (PERIODONTAL PLUS AB), and chlorhexidine gluconate (PERIOCHIP). Essentially, all studies reported substantial reductions in gingival inflammation, plaque scores, and bleeding indices, which were similar in both the control and the experimental groups. Use of antimicrobial sustained-release systems as an adjunct to SRP does not result in significant patient-centered adverse events. Local drug delivery combined with SRP appears to provide additional benefits in PD reduction compared with SRP alone.
  8 8,521 1,510
Causal relationship between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Surya J Prasanna
October-December 2011, 15(4):359-365
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92570  PMID:22368360
Context: Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases. An association between periodontal disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been observed . Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between periodontal health and COPD and to assess the potential health status of patients with and without COPD. Settings and Design: In this observational study, the association between periodontal disease and COPD has been assessed. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients were chosen for the study: group A comprising 50 COPD patients and group B consisting of 50 patients without COPD. Gingival Index (GI) and Papilla Bleeding Index (PBI) were used to assess the gingival status. Periodontal indices included Russell's Periodontal Index (PI) and Periodontal Index for Risk of Infectiousness (PIRI), which were assessed in all 100 patients. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was the statistical analysis used. Results: After eliminating age affects using ANCOVA, the mean indices of all variables between groups were found to be highly significant (P<0.001). The scores were highly significant in COPD group than in non-COPD group. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that there is an association between periodontal disease and COPD. It is suggested that periodontitis is one of the risk factors for COPD.
  7 5,275 737
Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases
Priti Basgauda Patil, Basgauda Ramesh Patil
October-December 2011, 15(4):310-317
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92560  PMID:22368352
Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases.
  6 11,864 2,646
Treatment and two-year follow-up of a patient with hereditary gingival fibromatosis
Abhinav Bansal, Sumit Narang, K Sowmya, Nidhi Sehgal
October-December 2011, 15(4):406-409
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92581  PMID:22368369
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare disorder characterized by various degrees of attached gingival overgrowth. Gingival fibromatosis usually develops as an isolated disorder but can be one feature of a syndrome. A case of a 17-year-old female who presented with a generalized severe gingival overgrowth, involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost the whole dentition. Excess gingival tissue was removed by conventional gingivectomy under local anesthesia. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved considerably. Good esthetic result was achieved without recurrence of the gingival overgrowth. After treatment, regular recall visits are necessary in order to evaluate oral hygiene, and the stability of the periodontal treatment.
  5 4,284 332
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: An overview
S Rajesh, Elizabeth Koshi, Koshi Philip, Aparna Mohan
October-December 2011, 15(4):323-327
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92563  PMID:22368354
Inflammatory periodontal disease caused by dental plaque is characterized by the clinical signs of inflammation and loss of periodontal tissue support. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. But the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. The possibility of development of resistance to antibiotics by the target organism has led to the development of a new antimicrobial concept with fewer complications. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of low power lasers with appropriate wavelength to kill micro organisms treated with a photosensitizer drug. PDT could be a useful adjunct to mechanical as well as antibiotics in eliminating periopathogenic bacteria.
  5 8,107 1,476
To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial
Anirban Chatterjee, Mini Saluja, Nidhi Singh, Abhishek Kandwal
October-December 2011, 15(4):398-401
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92578  PMID:22368367
Background: Azadirachta indica (neem), a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect. Materials and Methods: Forty five subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were selected for the study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I patients were asked to rinse with 15 ml of neem mouthwash twice daily, group II with 15 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily, and group III with 15 ml of saline twice daily. The three groups were asked to perform the routine oral hygiene procedures thought out the study period. Bleeding on probing and gingivitis were evaluated by Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) and Loe and Sillness gingival index (1963), respectively, at base line, after every week till one month. Results: Our result showed that an A. indica mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 21 days as compared to placebo. Conclusion: A. indica-based mouth rinse is equally efficacious with fewer side effects as compared to chlorhexidine and may be used as an adjunct therapy in treating plaque induced gingivitis.
  4 4,878 772
Comparison of the effectiveness of a commercially available herbal mouthrinse with chlorhexidine gluconate at the clinical and patient level
Ranjan Malhotra, Vishakha Grover, Anoop Kapoor, Divya Saxena
October-December 2011, 15(4):349-352
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92567  PMID:22368358
Background: The key to good oral health is hidden in nature. Natural herbs like neem, tulsi, pudina, clove oil, ajwain, triphala and many more has been used since ages either as a whole single herb or as a combination against various oral health problems like bleeding gums, halitosis, mouth ulcers and preventing tooth decay. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthrinse (Herboral) with that of chlorhexidine gluconate which is considered to be a gold standard as an anti-plaque agent. Materials and Methods: A randomized, two-group, parallel study as a 'de novo' plaque accumulation model was carried out on 50 subjects (23 males and 27 females). At baseline, all participants received a professional prophylaxis and were randomly assigned to the test (Herbal mouthrinse) and control (Chlorhexidine Gluconate) group. On the following three days, all subjects rinsed with 10 ml of the allocated mouthrinse twice daily for 1 min. They were asked to refrain from use of any other oral hygiene measures during the study. At the end of the experimental period, plaque was assessed and a questionnaire was filled by all subjects. Results: Chlorhexidine (mean plaque score=1.65) inhibited plaque growth significantly more than the herbal mouthrinse (mean plaque score=1.43, P<0.001). The results of the questionnaire showed that Herboral was preferred by patients for its taste, its convenience of use and taste duration (aftertaste). However, Chlorhexidine was considered to be more effective in reducing plaque as compared to Herboral. Conclusion: Herbal mouthrinse was found to be a potent plaque inhibitor, though less effective than Chlorhexidine Gluconate. However, it can serve as a good alternative for the patients with special needs as in case of diabetics, xerostomics, and so on.
  3 4,663 906
Tissue engineering: A new vista in periodontal regeneration
Nymphea Pandit, Rajvir Malik, Deepa Philips
October-December 2011, 15(4):328-337
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92564  PMID:22368355
Tissue engineering is a highly promising field of reconstructive biology that draws on recent advances in medicine, surgery, molecular and cellular biology, polymer chemistry, and physiology. The objective of using tissue engineering as therapeutic application has been to harness its ability to exploit selected and primed cells together with an appropriate mix of regulatory factors, to allow growth and specialization of cells and matrix. The authors reviewed controlled clinical trials which also included histological studies that evaluated the potential of tissue engineering as a clinical tool in regeneration. PubMed/MEDLINE databases were searched for studies up to and including June 2010 to identify appropriate articles. A comprehensive search was designed, and the articles were independently screened for eligibility. Articles with authentic controls and proper randomization and pertaining specifically to their role in periodontal regeneration were included. Studies demonstrated that the periodontal regeneration with the use of combination of tissue engineered products with an osteoconductive matrix improve the beneficial effect of these materials by accelerating cellular in growth and revascularization of the wound site. Studies have suggested the use of rh Platelet-derived growth factor + beta tricalcium phosphate for regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus in combination with collagen membranes as an acceptable alternative to connective tissue graft for covering gingival recession defects. The studies concluded that growth factors promote true regeneration of the periodontal attachment apparatus and the use of combination protein therapeutics which is commercially available can provide more predictable, faster, less invasive, less traumatic, and efficient outcome for the patient.
  3 8,998 2,409
Effect of cigarette smoking on the periodontal health status: A comparative, cross sectional study
DK Gautam, Vikas Jindal, SC Gupta, Amrinder Tuli, Bhanu Kotwal, Rambhika Thakur
October-December 2011, 15(4):383-387
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92575  PMID:22368364
Context: Survey. Aims: The objective of the study was to evaluate the periodontal health status among cigarette smokers and non cigarette smokers, and oral hygiene measures. Settings and Design: Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study included 400 male (200 cigarette smokers and 200 non smokers) aged 18-65 years. The subjects were randomly selected from the patients attending dental out-patient department of civil hospital and Himachal Dental College, Sundernagar. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score was recorded for each patient and a questionnaire was completed by each patient. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and t-test. Results: Periodontal condition as assessed by CPI score showed that there was statistically significant difference in the findings between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, positive association was observed between periodontal disease and cigarette smoking. It was found that cigarette smoking was associated with lesser gingival bleeding and deeper pockets as compared to non-smokers.
  2 6,412 1,082
Effect of smoking on gingival microvasculature: A histological study
Vijaya Kumar, Mohamed Faizuddin
October-December 2011, 15(4):344-348
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92566  PMID:22368357
Background: Smoking has been reported as a major risk factor for periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated decreased bleeding on probing and reduced inflammatory response among smokers, which has been attributed to the alterations in gingival microvasculature, gingival epithelium. In previous investigations, vascular and epithelial changes have been studied in the gingival tissues of smokers suffering from periodontitis and compared with healthy periodontium of non smokers. Inflammation is known to cause vascular and epithelial changes in the gingiva on its own in the absence of smoking. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt is made to study and to compare the vascular and epithelial changes in the gingiva of smokers and non smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis. Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular and epithelial changes in gingiva of smokers and non smokers with chronic periodontitis. Study Design: Cross sectional study . Materials and Methods: Gingival biopsies were obtained from 33 male patients (18 smokers and 15 non smokers) who were undergoing periodontal therapy or extraction. The sections were stained with eosin and hematoxylin. Vascular density, area of the lumen, and epithelial thickness were assessed using histomorphometric image analysis. Statistical Method: Data was analyzed using student unpaired 't' test, Karl Pearsons correlation, and Chi-square test. Results: The mean blood vessel density for smokers was 12.388±6.472 and for non smokers was 14.800±4.91. The mean lumen area of the vessels among smokers and non smokers was 19.290±8.775 mm 2 and 20.044±7.896 mm 2 , respectively. The mean epithelial thickness among smokers was 150.551±32.994 m and 134.941±30.63 m for non smokers. Conclusion: Based on the present histomorphometric study, it could be concluded that smokers have less vascular density and reduced lumen area and increased epithelial thickness than non smokers. However, these changes were not statistically significant.
  2 2,846 599
"What is there in a name?": A literature review on chronic and aggressive periodontitis
Sameera G Nath, Ranjith Raveendran
October-December 2011, 15(4):318-322
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92561  PMID:22368353
The objective of this review is to bring the reader up-to-date on the current understanding of chronic and aggressive forms of periodontitis and the implications for diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The only difference between chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis with regard to tissue destruction appear to be perhaps the magnitude, sequelae, and control of the response. While there may be some differences in the cellular infiltrate between these two diseases, the molecular mediators and pathologic processes are generally the same.
  2 3,323 1,025
Comparison between scalpel technique and electrosurgery for depigmentation: A case series
BM Bhusari, Shweta Kasat
October-December 2011, 15(4):402-405
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92580  PMID:22368368
A beautiful smile definitely enhances the personality of an individual and reveals self-confidence. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, position, and color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules which are produced by melanoblasts. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is a completely benign condition and does not pose any medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line. The different treatment modalities that have been reported for depigmentation are bur abrasion, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and lasers. In this paper we have compared the results of electrosurgery and scalpel technique, i.e., partial thickness flap.
  1 5,688 698
Oral malignant melanoma: A silent killer?
Ashvini Padhye, Jovita D'souza
October-December 2011, 15(4):425-428
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92587  PMID:22368374
Oral malignant melanomas are extremely rare lesions and occur commonly in the maxillary gingiva more frequently on the palate with fewer incidences in the mandibular gingiva. Though these lesions are biologically aggressive, they often go unnoticed since they are clinically asymptomatic in the early stages and usually present merely as a hyperpigmented patch on the gingival surface. These lesions if diagnosed at an early in situ stage are potentially curable and definitely have a better prognosis, but unfortunately as they are clinically asymptomatic, it results in delayed diagnosis thus making the prognosis extremely poor. This paper presents the case of a patient who visited our department with the complaint of darkened patches on the gums and his concern was purely aesthetic. There were no symptoms associated with the hyperpigmented lesions and hence the patient did not approach us earlier. When the lesions grew larger and were unsightly, the patient has seeked dental advice. Histopathologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis as 'Oral Malignant Melanoma'. Though aggressive therapy was instilled immediately, unfortunately, the patient succumbed to death within a few months after diagnosis as the lesion was highly invasive. Due to the biologically aggressive but clinically silent nature of progression of the lesion, the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion and early detection and diagnosis for any pigmented gingival lesions cannot be overemphasised. Diagnosis must be based on thorough detailed history and valid histologic evidence.
  1 6,205 345
Guided tissue regeneration in communicating periodontal and endodontic lesions - A hope for the hopeless!
Rohini Mali, Priya Lele, Vishakha
October-December 2011, 15(4):410-413
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92582  PMID:22368370
The use of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has become a standard of care in Periodontology. GTR using membrane barriers and/or bone grafting materials has also been used in periapical surgery. However, the application of the GTR principle, particularly in communicating endodontic-periodontal lesions with loss of the buccal cortical plate, is a very challenging task, with very few reported human clinical studies. An interdisciplinary approach, combining endodontic and periodontal (surgical) procedures can save a tooth in the long run that has been defined as hopeless at the preliminary stage of treatment.
  1 5,516 683
A clinical study of the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease
Neelima S Rajhans, Ramesh M Kohad, Viren G Chaudhari, Nilkanth H Mhaske
October-December 2011, 15(4):388-392
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92576  PMID:22368365
The relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease is not clear, even though studied intensively. From the available data, it seemed reasonable to believe that diabetics were more susceptible to periodontal disease than non-diabetics. Aim: The present study was to clinically evaluate the relationship of diabetes mellitus with periodontal disease along with various parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifteen hundred patients with diabetes mellitus were examined. A thorough oral examination was carried out and relevant history was recorded for all the patients. Results: Results indicated that the prevalence of periodontal disease in diabetic patients was 86.8%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that poorer the glycemic control, and longer the duration of diabetes, the greater will be the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease.
  1 5,520 893
An evaluation of a resorbable (semirigid) GTR membrane in human periodontal intraosseous defects: A clinicoradiological re-entry study
Vinayak S Gowda, Vijay Chava, Ajeya E. G. Kumara
October-December 2011, 15(4):393-397
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92577  PMID:22368366
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a resorbable, semi rigid guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane in the treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled clinicoradiological re-entry study. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with bilateral, identical intraosseous defects were selected. The sides for test and control group were randomly allocated to treat either with bioresorbable semi rigid membrane (test group) or open flap debridement (control group). Radiographic analysis was done by comparing intraoral peri apical radiographs taken at baseline and at six months. Extended cone paralleling device with grid was used to standardize radiographs. Auto CAD software was used for the analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired-t test. Results: On surgical reentry at six months, the mean reduction in depth of the defect at the test site was 2.63 mm. The mean gain in Relative attachment level was 1.75 mm. The control sites showed a statistically insignificant gain. The mean percentage defect fill assessed on radiographs using auto CAD software was 15.54%. Conclusion: The resorbable, semi-rigid GTR membrane can be effectively used for the treatment of human one-walled angular defects.
  1 3,355 424
Analysis of association between TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis in a sample of south Indian population
Bavigadda Harish Reddy, ND Jayakumar, Sreenivasa Rao Akula, Rupali Sharma, G Kaarthikeyan, Sankari
October-December 2011, 15(4):366-370
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92571  PMID:22368361
Background: To analyze the association between TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis in a sample of south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood of 60 patients with chronic periodontitis and 60 periodontally healthy subjects. TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms were genotyped by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The data were analyzed by a χ2-test and by relative risk estimation. Results: Thr399Ile alleles were found in 4% of chronic periodontitis patients and in 1% of periodontally healthy subjects. The prevalence of a Thr399Ile heterozygote was found to be 5% in the chronic periodontitis group and 1.67% in the periodontally healthy group, respectively. Homozygosity for TLR-4 Thr399Ile was seen in chronic periodontitis patients only, which was 1.67%. The TLR-4 Asp299Gly gene polymorphism was not detected in either chronic periodontitis or periodontally healthy groups. Conclusion: There is no significant association between TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism and chronic periodontitis in a sample of south Indian population.
  1 2,701 292
Ortho-perio integrated approach in periodontally compromised patients
CS Ramachandra, Pradeep Chandra Shetty, Sanyukta Rege, Chitrang Shah
October-December 2011, 15(4):414-417
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92583  PMID:22368371
It is an undisputed fact that sound and strong periodontal health is a must in patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Does this mean that we are going to deny orthodontic treatment for those adults whose number is rising, more often secondary to periodontal deterioration and pathological migration of teeth resulting in aesthetic and functional problems? Need of the hour is to have an integrated approach where in periodontal treatment precedes orthodontic treatment to restore periodontal health. Orthodontic treatment should be performed under strict plaque control measures to place the teeth in a structurally balanced and functionally efficient position. Aim of this article is to familiarize the practicing clinicians both in the field of orthodontics and periodontics with current thoughts and successful clinical techniques used in the field of periodontology to regenerate lost periodontal structures. Furthermore, it aims to integrate such techniques into the orthodontic treatment of patients with severe bone loss.
  - 7,714 1,110
Extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as gingival mass
BS Manjunatha, R Gowramma, D Nagarajappa, Ahmed Tanveer
October-December 2011, 15(4):418-420
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92584  PMID:22368372
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) commonly presents as non-tender, enlarged lymph nodes, accompanied by diffuse symptoms of fatigue and low-grade intermittent fever and it is derived predominantly from the cells of the B lymphocyte series. NHL cases occur extra-nodally and in 3% of these cases the initial presentation may be in the oral cavity. Though extra-nodal NHL of the oral cavity is a rare finding, patients with oral lesions of NHL commonly present at the dental clinic in the first instance. A careful clinical evaluation supported by histopathological and other laboratory investigations will help in identifying the disease at an early stage, resulting in better prognosis. Any delay in diagnosis has important implications on the morbidity and mortality of the condition. Due to the rarity of intraoral NHL, we present one such a case with a complaint of tumor-like mass on the gingiva of lower molar region. The lesion was clinically thought as pyogenic granuloma and later diagnosed as extra nodal NHL of the oral cavity.
  - 3,908 225
Correction of gummy smile: A report of two cases
Sarita Narayan, TV Narayan, PC Jacob
October-December 2011, 15(4):421-424
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92585  PMID:22368373
Cosmetically acceptable smiles show a gingival display of up to 3 mm. Gingival display of greater than 3 mm results in a gummy smile which is often unsightly for the individual and correction is sought. There are a variety of procedures used for surgical crown lengthening. Here, we describe two such cases requiring two different approaches for surgical crown lengthening.
  - 6,982 884
What is the measure of perfection?
Ashish Sham Nichani
October-December 2011, 15(4):301-301
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92556  PMID:22368349
  - 1,528 147
Comparative evaluation of a bioabsorbable collagen membrane and connective tissue graft in the treatment of localized gingival recession: A clinical study
Harsha Mysore Babu, Sheela Kumar Gujjari, Deepak Prasad, Praveen Kumar Sehgal, Aishwarya Srinivasan
October-December 2011, 15(4):353-358
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92569  PMID:22368359
Background: Gingival recession (GR) can result in root sensitivity, esthetic concern to the patient, and predilection to root caries. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate (1) the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane, in comparison to autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for root coverage in localized gingival recession defects; and (2) the change in width of keratinized gingiva following these two procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases, showing at least two localized Miller's Class I or Class II gingival recession, participated in this study. In a split mouth design, the pairs of defects were randomly assigned for treatment with either SCTG (SCTG Group) or GTR-based collagen membrane (GTRC Group). Both the grafts were covered with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), width of keratinized gingiva (KG), probing depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months following root coverage procedures, the mean root coverage was found to be 84.84% ± 16.81% and 84.0% ± 15.19% in SCTG Group and GTRC Group, respectively. The mean keratinized gingival width increase was 1.50 ± 0.70 mm and 2.30 ± 0.67 mm in the SCTG and GTRC group, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It may be concluded that resorbable collagen membrane can be a reliable alternative to autogenous connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recession.
  - 5,031 657
Effect of a volatile smoke component (acrolein) on human gingival fibroblasts: An in vitro study
Nithya Anand, Pamela Emmadi, N Ambalavanan, T Ramakrishnan
October-December 2011, 15(4):371-375
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92573  PMID:22368362
Aim: Tobacco and some of its volatile and non-volatile components have been found to affect many types of cells including human gingival fibroblasts. The aim of this present study was to estimate the effect of acrolein, a volatile fraction of cigarette smoke on the attachment, proliferation and ultra structure of human gingival fibroblasts in culture. Materials and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts strains obtained from healthy subjects aged 20-30 years, were grown to confluency and utilized between 3 rd -6 th passages. The cell cultures seeded in 96 well microtitration plates at a density of 45,000 cells/well were incubated with acrolein at concentrations of 10 -4 , 3×10 -5 and 10 -5 . Attachment ability was evaluated after three hours using Neubauer hemocytometer. For the proliferation assay cell cultures seeded at a density of 10,000 cells/well were incubated at concentrations of 10 -4 , 3×10 -5 , 10 -5 , 3×10 -6 , 10 -6 and cell count determined after 5 days using a hemocytometer. Cell morphology was examined under phase contrast microscope. Results: Acrolein produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human gingival fibroblasts with complete inhibition of attachment and proliferation at higher concentrations. Conclusion: This supports the hypothesis that cigarette smoke is a great risk factor in the development and progression of periodontal disease.
  - 2,206 226
Evaluation of gingival fiber retention technique on the treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis: A comparative study
Pooja Palwankar, Jagjit Dhaliwal, Vivek Mehta
October-December 2011, 15(4):376-382
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92574  PMID:22368363
The destructive action of the chronic periodontitis on the periodontal tissues has provided a continuous challenge to the dental profession to develop better methods to achieve repair of the recession regions and even regeneration of post periodontal tissues. Aims: To assess the effect of periodontal muco-periostal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique on minimizing the post surgical recession. Materials and Methods: The sample for the study comprised of 20 patients. The criteria for selection included patients with moderate periodontitis, with minimum recession in the anterior teeth, with adequate width of the attached gingiva, and with no traumatic occlusion. Periodontal muco-periosteal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique was done in the experimental site with internal bevel incision, and in control site, muco periosteal flap surgery with crevicular incision was done. Thereafter, observation period was of one week, four weeks, and eight weeks were done for both the sites. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using student's t`-test. Results: The result of this study suggests that the periodontal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique has a beneficial effect on the anterior teeth, as it maintains the esthetics, recontours the gingiva with minimal recession. The area of recession was more on the control site as compared to experimental site at 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Conclusions: Gingival fiber retention technique showed less post-surgical recession and also there was fall in values of plaque index, gingival index, and periodontal index scores, throughout the study.
  - 2,695 406
Let us march ahead with optimism
Mohamed Faizuddin
October-December 2011, 15(4):302-302
  - 1,333 90
Minimally invasive periodontal therapy
Aous Dannan
October-December 2011, 15(4):338-343
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92565  PMID:22368356
Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that preserves dentition and supporting structures. However, minimally invasive procedures in periodontal treatment are supposed to be limited within periodontal surgery, the aim of which is to represent alternative approaches developed to allow less extensive manipulation of surrounding tissues than conventional procedures, while accomplishing the same objectives. In this review, the concept of minimally invasive periodontal surgery (MIPS) is firstly explained. An electronic search for all studies regarding efficacy and effectiveness of MIPS between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. For this purpose, suitable key words from Medical Subject Headings on PubMed were used to extract the required studies. All studies are demonstrated and important results are concluded. Preliminary data from case cohorts and from many studies reveal that the microsurgical access flap, in terms of MIPS, has a high potential to seal the healing wound from the contaminated oral environment by achieving and maintaining primary closure. Soft tissues are mostly preserved and minimal gingival recession is observed, an important feature to meet the demands of the patient and the clinician in the esthetic zone. However, although the potential efficacy of MIPS in the treatment of deep intrabony defects has been proved, larger studies are required to confirm and extend the reported positive preliminary outcomes.
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Firm on the ground…
Balaji Manohar
October-December 2011, 15(4):303-303
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.92558  PMID:22368350
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